Theory ::::::::::::::::::: Bibliography::::::::::::::::::::::Glossary::::::::::::::::::::::::White book
by Núria Vergés Bosch & Alexandra Haché
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R. L. (1989). From Data to Wisdom, Journal of Applied Systems Analysis,
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Ed H. Chi, John T. Riedl, An
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the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis98), North Carolina,
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Ed H. Chi, A Taxonomy of Visualization Techniques
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F. Roth, On the Semantics of Interactive Visualizations, Proceedings
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Michael J. Potel
(ed), Ben Delaney, VizSim Technology Helps Find Oil Faster, IEEE Computer
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Phoenix, Arizona, 1997, pp. 92-99.
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Shneiderman, Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think,
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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a procedure (a finite set
of well-defined instructions) for accomplishing some task which, given an initial
state, will terminate in a defined end-state. Informally, the concept of an algorithm
is often illustrated by the example of a recipe, although many algorithms are
much more complex; algorithms often have steps that repeat (iterate) or require
decisions (such as logic or comparison). In most higher level programs, algortihms
act in complex patterns, each using smaller and smaller sub-methods which are
built up to the program as a whole. In most languages are isomorphic to functions
or methods. source: wikipedia
API: Application Programming Interface. The
specification of how a programmer writing an application accesses the behavior
and state of classes and objects. source: sun developer network
An applet is a program written in the Java programming language that can be included
in an HTML page, much in the same way an image is included in a page. When you
use a Java technology-enabled browser to view a page that contains an applet,
the applet's code is transferred to your system and executed by the browser's
Java Virtual Machine (JVM). source: sun developer network
a group of licenses applied to works such as software, documents, music, and art.
Whereas copyright law is seen by the original proponents of copyleft as a way
to restrict the right to make and redistribute copies of a particular work, a
copyleft license uses copyright law in order to ensure that every person who receives
a copy or derived version of a work can use, modify, and also redistribute both
the work, and derived versions of the work. Thus, in a non-legal sense, copyleft
is the opposite of copyright.source: wikipedia
Distribution: A software
distribution is an installer of a specific software (or a collection of multiple,
even an entire operating system) , already compiled and configured. It is generally
the closest thing to a turnkey form of a usually GPL or open source source code
for a software. It usually takes the form of either rpm, deb, tgz, msi, exe etc.
installer and is downloadable from the Internet source: wikipedia .
is a phrase used to refer to someone that one does not know well literally,
a friend of a friend. In some social sciences, the phrase is used as a half-joking
shorthand for the fact that much of the information on which people act comes
from distant sources (as in "It happened to a friend of a friend of mine")
and cannot be confirmed. It is probably best known from urban legend studies.
The term was popularized by Jan Harold Brunvand, the best-known writer of that
field. It was apparently first published by Rodney Dale in his 1978 book The Tumour
in the Whale - WH Allen ISBN 0426187105 - in which he discussed the "FOAFtale".
The rise of social networking services has led to increased use of this term.source:
Folksonomy: "a neologism combining "folk" and
"taxonomy", refers to collaborative efforts to organize information
on the Internet. More colloquially, this refers to a group of people cooperating
spontaneously to organize information into categories. In contrast to formal classification
methods, this phenomenon typically only arises in non-hierarchical communities,
such as public websites. Instead of using a centralized form of classification,
users are encouraged to assign freely chosen keywords, typically referred to as
"tags", to pieces of information or data, a process known as "tagging".
Examples of web services that use tagging include those designed to allow users
to publish and share photographs, personal libraries, bookmarks, social software
and most blog software, permitting authors to assign tags to each entry. source:
GIS/GPS: These data can be of any kind: sales figures, revenues,
population census, real estate, illness rates, etc. The fundamental issue that
distinguishes it from other information systems is that of making the relationship
between these data and the geographical coordinates of the Earth surface. They
are mainly used in demography, town planning, natural resources management, business,
marketing, logistics and distribution. source: infovis
Graphs: We can say
that a graph is a set of nodes with links between them called edges or arcs. In
a simple graph theres only one arc between two nodes. If theres more
than one arc we call it a multigraph. If arcs can be followed in only one specific
direction but not in the other we call it a directed graph or digraph and arcs
become edges. If arcs begin and end in the same node making a loop, the resulting
graph is called a pseudograph. Despite a graph seeming a very elementary structure,
there are many features of graphs whose study has lead to a complete mathematical
theory. (For more information you can take a look at the graph glossary by Chris
Caldwell or the introduction to graph theory of the wikipedia). There are many
ways to represent a graph. There are even complete congresses devoted to discussing
how to do it; for example the International Symposium on Graph Drawing source:
Hubs: A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs
are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports.
When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all
segments of the LAN can see all packets. A passive hub serves simply as a conduit
for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another. So-called
intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to
monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the
hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs. A third type of hub, called
a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then
forwards the packet to the correct port. source: webopedia
Arquitecture: The study of the organisation of information in order for the user
to find their navigational way to the knowledge and understanding of information.
According to Richard Saul Wurman an Information Architect is:
who organises the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear.
person who creates the structure or map of information which allows others to
find their personal paths to knowledge.
3.the emerging 21st century professional
occupation addressing the needs of the age focused upon clarity, human understanding
and the science of the organisation of information.
has many things in common with Information Design. For this reason sometimes the
two terms are confused. We consider it as part of Information Visualisation. source:
Nodes: (1) In networks, a processing location. A node can be a
computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has a unique network
address, sometimes called a Data Link Control (DLC) address or Media Access Control
(2) In tree structures, a point where two or more lines meet.
Opensource: describes general practices in production
and development which promote access to the end product's sources. It is regarded
by some as a philosophy and by others a pragmatic methodology. Developers and
producers had used many different phrases and jargon words before open source
became widely adopted, as the early Internet years provided a rapid convergence
of socially diverse production models. With the revolutionary increase in interactive
communities and their direct involvement with the Internet, open-source software
became the most prominent face of open source. Even though the Internet started
in 1969 with open standards like RFCs, it wasn't until 1998 that open source became
a label applied to software to denote the same collaborative effort which began
the Internet. The open source model allows for the concurrent use of different
agendas and approaches in production, and it contrasts with more isolated models.source:
Perl: Practical Extraction and Report Language (a backronym, see
below) is an interpreted procedural programming language designed by Larry Wall.
Perl borrows features from C, shell scripting (sh), awk, sed, Lisp, and (to a
lesser extent) many other programming languages.source: wikipedia
A plugin (or plug-in) is a computer program that can, or must, interact with another
program to provide a certain, usually very specific, function. Typical examples
are plugins to display specific graphic formats (e.g., SVG if the program doesn't
support this format natively), to play multimedia files, to encrypt/decrypt email
(e.g., PGP), or to filter images in graphic programs. The main program (a web
browser or an email client, for example) provides a way for plugins to register
themselves with the program, and a protocol by which data is exchanged with plugins.
Psychogeography:Psychogeography was originally developed
by the Lettrist International, as a hypergraphics in their system of unitary urbanism.
The term has since been used by many others, leading to many variations in the
practice which have included the following forms: Debordian; Literary; Generative
or Algorithmic; and Quantum. Various factions claim to be or accuse each other
of being: academic; occultist; avant-garde; proletarian; or revolutionary and
During the 1980s and 90s while situationist theory
became popular in academic circles, avant-garde, neoist and revolutionary groups
emerged, developing the praxis in various ways. Psychogeography has since also
become a standard device used in art and literature.Source: wikipedia
web feed formats, specified in XML and used for Web syndication. RSS is used by
(among other things) news websites, weblogs and podcasting. The abbreviation is
variously used to refer to the following standards:
Rich Site Summary (RSS
RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 and 1.0)
Really Simple Syndication (RSS
Web feeds provide web content or summaries of web content together with
links to the full versions of the content, and other metadata. RSS in particular,
delivers this information as an XML file called an RSS feed, webfeed, RSS stream,
or RSS channel. In addition to facilitating syndication, web feeds allow a website's
frequent readers to track updates on the site using an aggregator. Source: wikipedia
web:The Semantic Web is a web of data. There is lots of data we all use every
day, and its not part of the web. I can see my bank statements on the web, and
my photographs, and I can see my appointments in a calendar. But can I see my
photos in a calendar to see what I was doing when I took them? Can I see bank
statement lines in a calendar?
Why not? Because we don't have a web of data.
Because data is controlled by applications, and each application keeps it to itself.
The Semantic Web is about two things. It is about common formats for interchange
of data, where on the original Web we only had interchange of documents. Also
it is about language for recording how the data relates to real world objects.
That allows a person, or a machine, to start off in one database, and then move
through an unending set of databases which are connected not by wires but by being
about the same thing. source: w3.org
Semantic zoom: Zoom of a graphic object
that doesn't adhere to the pure scaling of its geometry but instead, searches
at every level of detail a representation that maximises the understanding of
its meaning. For example, at a certain zoom level, the object can be a dot, at
another one it could be represented as a labeled box and still at another as a
small rectangle with little characters representing text. More zooming could give
us the whole document. source: infovis
Social networks: Social network
analysis is focused on uncovering the patterning of people's interaction. It is
about the kind of patterning that Roger Brown described when he wrote: "Social
structure becomes actually visible in an anthill; the movements and contacts one
sees are not random but patterned. We should also be able to see structure in
the life of an American community if we had a sufficiently remote vantage point,
a point from which persons would appear to be small moving dots. . . . We should
see that these dots do not randomly approach one another, that some are usually
together, some meet often, some never. . . . If one could get far enough away
from it human life would become pure pattern."source: International Network
for Social Network Analisis
TagCloud: TagCloud is an automated Folksonomy
tool. Essentially, TagCloud? searches any number of RSS feeds you specify, extracts
keywords from the content and lists them according to prevalence within the RSS
feeds. Clicking on the tag's link will display a list of all the article abstracts
associated with that keyword. source: tagcloud.com
Usability: Ability of
a system to be used easily or efficiently. Usability is different than utility
(ability of something to satisfy a need). The word usability arises in relation
with the Human-Computer? interface studies. The interface of a program or of a
web site can be useful because it performs the whole range of operations specified,
but can be of low usability, for example, due to a high complexity that makes
it difficult to be used efficiently for non-trained people. source: infovis
Process of knowledge internalization by the perception of information. Although
information is visualized mainly in a visual way, in this context Information
Visualisation has to be understood in a more general way; as perception or internalization
i.e. understanding. In principle this includes whatever media could be used to
get the understanding, be it graphics, written text, sound, animations, etc. Information
Visualisation relies basically on:
Human beings receive the bulk of information
in a visual way due to the fact that this is the sense with more bandwidth, i.e.
the one that yields more quantity of information. The symbolic capability of the
InfoVis? includes explicitly the following topics (among others):Information
Design or Architecture Scientific Visualisation Graphic representations in general
. Formation in the mind of the image of an abstract concept. Visualisation derives,
in this context, from the graphic representation of variables associated to the
concept that one wants to follow. For instance, a plot of the fever vs. time allows
us to visualize the evolution of the illness. Fever (temperature) and time are
the variables. Illness is the concept. source: infovis
> White book
You can download below all the repports that have been developepd through the project. They reflect the several steps and tasks that we did develop to be able to make those tools.